Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS)
Sinus surgery involves the removal of diseased sinus tissue with improvement in the natural drainage channels by the creation of a pathway for infected material to drain from the sinus cavities. Most of the ENT surgeons recommend the endoscopic sinus surgery wherever possible
Tympanoplasty, also called eardrum repair, refers to surgery performed to reconstruct a perforated tympanic membrane (eardrum) or the small bones of the middle ear. Eardrum perforation may result from chronic infection or, less commonly, from trauma to the eardrum.
A mastoidectomy is performed to remove infected mastoid air cells resulting from ear infections, such as mastoiditis or chronic otitis, or by inflammatory disease of the middle ear (cholesteatoma). The mastoid air cells are open spaces containing air that are located throughout the mastoid bone, the prominent bone located behind the ear that projects from the temporal bone of the skull.
A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing in both ears; as of 2014 they had been used experimentally in some people who had acquired deafness in one ear after learning how to speak. Cochlear implants bypass the normal hearing process; they have a microphone and some electronics that reside outside the skin, generally behind the ear, which transmits a signal to an array of electrodes placed in the cochlea, which stimulate the cochlear nerve.
A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. Head and Neck or Endocrine Surgeons often perform a thyroidectomy when a patient has thyroid cancer or some other condition of the thyroid gland (such as hyperthyroidism) or goiter. Other indications for surgery include cosmetic (very enlarged thyroid), or symptomatic obstruction (causing difficulties in swallowing or breathing). Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure that has several potential complications or sequelae including: temporary or permanent change in voice, temporary or permanently low calcium, need for lifelong thyroid hormone replacement, bleeding, infection, and the remote possibility of airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Complications are uncommon when the procedure is performed by an experienced surgeon.
Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids for reasons which include impaired breathing through the nose, chronic infections, or recurrent earaches. The surgery is less commonly performed in adults in whom adenoids are considered vestigial and purposeless. It is most often done on an outpatient basis under general anesthesia. Post-operative pain is generally minimal and reduced by icy or cold foods. The procedure can be combined with tonsillectomy if indicated and recovery time can range from several hours to two or three days (though as age increases so does recovery time).
Adenoidectomy is not often performed under one year of age as adenoid function is part of the body's immune system but its contribution to this decreases progressively beyond this age.
Septoplasty or alternatively submucous septal resection and septal reconstruction is a corrective surgical procedure done to straighten the nasal septum, the partition between the two nasal cavities. Ideally, the septum should run down the center of the nose. When it deviates into one of the cavities, it narrows that cavity and impedes airflow. Deviated nasal septum or “crooked” internal nose can occur at childbirth or as the result of an injury or other trauma. If the wall that functions as a separator of both sides of the nose is tilted towards one side at a degree greater than 50%, it might cause difficulty breathing. Often the inferior turbinate on the opposite side enlarges, which is termed compensatory hypertrophy. Deviations of the septum can lead to nasal obstruction. Most surgeries are completed in 60 minutes or less, while the recovery time could be up to several weeks. Septoplasty is sometimes done with rhinoplasty for cosmetic correction of the deformities of the external nasal framework.
Nasal polyps may present in patients who report perennial nasal congestion, obstruction, and anosmia or hyposmia. In contrast to many individuals who have chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps who present with headache and facial pressure and pain, patients with nasal polyposis generally do not report those symptoms unless they have a concurrent infection. Nasal polyps typically are semitranslucent, pale, gray masses in the nasal cavity.
Nasal polypectomy is a surgical procedure to remove polyps located in the nasal passages. Nasal polyps affect 2-5% of the population and may occur in association with chronic rhinosinusitis, cystic fibrosis, Kartagener syndrome, Samter triad (asthma, nasal polyposis, and aspirin sensitivity), or as an isolated phenomenon. Children with nasal polyps should be evaluated for cystic fibrosis. Studies suggest both allergies and a family history of nasal polyps are predisposing factors in the growth of nasal polyps. The role of environmental exposure to smoking, pollution, and other chemicals remains controversial.
A tonsillectomy is the surgical removal of the tonsils. A general anesthesia is always used to sedate a child undergoing a tonsillectomy. Adults may require only a local anesthesia to numb the throat.
A very sore throat usually follows a tonsillectomy and may last for several days. This may affect the sound and volume of the person's voice and his or her ability to eat and drink. The person may also have bad-smelling breath for a few days after surgery. There is a very small risk of bleeding after surgery.
Audiometry is a branch of Audiology and the science of measuring hearing acuity for variations in sound intensity and pitch and for tonal purity, involving thresholds and differing frequencies. Typically, audiometric tests determine a subject's hearing levels with the help of an audiometer, but may also measure ability to discriminate between different sound intensities, recognize pitch, or distinguish speech from background noise. Acoustic reflex and otoacoustic emissions may also be measured. Results of audiometric tests are used to diagnose hearing loss or diseases of the ear, and often make use of an audiogram.
Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA) is a test measuring responses in the brain waves that are stimulated by a clicking sound to check the central auditory pathways(hearing) of the brainstem.
What are the indications for performing a Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry (BERA)?
The indications for a BERA are as follows:
Nervous system abnormalities
Children with hearing loss
To assess neurological functions
Suspected acoustic neuroma
Central pontine myelinolysis
A hearing aid or deaf aid is a device designed to improve hearing. Hearing aids are classified as medical devices in most countries, and regulated by the respective regulations. Small audio amplifiers such as PSAPs or other plain sound reinforcing systems cannot be sold as "hearing aids".
Earlier devices, such as ear trumpets or ear horns, were passive amplification cones designed to gather sound energy and direct it into the ear canal. Modern devices are computerised electroacoustic systems that transform environmental sound to make it more intelligible or comfortable, according to audiometrical and cognitive rules. Such sound processing can be considerable, such as highlighting a spatial region, shifting frequencies, cancelling noise and wind, or highlighting voice.